Software Models and Frameworks for Sound

Composition, Synthesis, and Analysis:

The Siren, CSL, and MAK Music Languages

Anthology of papers by Stephen Travis Pope - 1986-2005; updated 2007

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Overview

  1. Introduction................................................................1
  2. Background: Models of Music Composition and Performance.....................9
  3. Problem Statement: Languages and GUIs for Musical Interaction.............109
  4. Models of Music and Musical Composition...................................153
  5. Frameworks and Languages for Sound Synthesis and Processing...............237
  6. Signal Analysis, Feature Extraction, and Music Information Retrieval......307
  7. Evaluation................................................................361
  8. Future Work...............................................................369
  9. Conclusions...............................................................371
  10. Acknowledgments...........................................................373
  11. References................................................................374
    Appendices................................................................377

    Addenda (2007)............................................................419

Abstract

Music is an undeniably complex phenomenon, so the design of abstract representations, formal models, and description languages for music-related data can be expected to be a rich domain. Music-making consists of a variety of diverse activities, and each of these presents different requirements for developers of new abstract and concrete data formats for musician users.

The topic of this anthology is the design of formal models and languages for a set of common musical activities including (but not limited to) composition, performance and production, and semantic analysis. The background of this work is the 50-year history of computer music programming languages, which began with low-level and (by today’s standards) simplistic notations for signal synthesis routines and compositional algorithms. Over these 50 years, many generations of new ideas have been applied to programming language design, and the topics of formal modeling and explicit knowledge representation have arisen and taken an important place in computer science, and thus in computer music.

The three concrete systems presented here have been developed and refined over a period of 25 years, and address the areas of (a) music composition (Siren), (b) sound synthesis and processing (CSL), and (c) music data analysis for information retrieval (MAK). In each successive generation of refinement of these concrete languages, the underlying models and metamodels have been considered and incrementally merged, so that the current-generation (Siren 7, CSL 4 and MAK 4) share  both superficial and deep models and expressive facilities. This allows the user (assumed to be a composer, performer, or musicologist) to share data and functionality across these domains, and, as will be demonstrated, to extend the models and frameworks into new areas with relative ease.

The significant contributions of this work to the literature can be found in (a) the set of design criteria and trade-offs developed for music language developers, (b) the new object-oriented design patterns for computer music systems, and (c) the trans-disciplinary design of the three specific languages for composers, performer/producers, and musicologists presented here.


Table of Contents

1. Introduction - 1

2. Background: Models of Music Composition and Performance - 9

A. Music Composition and Scoring by Computer (originally appeared in G. Haus, ed. Music Processing. A-R Editions, 1992) - 14

B. Music Notation and the Representation of Musical Structure and Knowledge (originally appeared in Perspectives of New Music 24:2, 1986) - 63

C. Computer Music Workstations I have Known and Loved (originally appeared in Proceedings of the 1995 International Computer Music Conference) - 98

D. Summary - 106

3. Problem Statement: Languages and GUIs for Musical Interaction - 109

A. Real-Time Performance via User Interfaces to Musical Structures (originally appeared in  INTERFACE 22:3, 1992) - 111

B. The Interim DynaPiano: An Integrated Tool and Instrument for Composers (originally appeared in Computer Music Journal 16:3, 1993) - 124

C. Summary - 149

4. Models of Music and Musical Composition - 153

A. Considerations in the Design of a Music Representation Language (originally appeared in Proceedings of the 1989 International Computer Music Conference) -  156

B. Designing HyperScore Notations for Computer Music Development (originally appeared in Computer Music Array, 8:1, 1987) - 160

C. Fifteen Years of Computer-Assisted Composition (originally appeared in Proceedings of the Second Brazilian Symposium on Computer Music, 1995) - 169

D. Music and Sound Processing in Squeak Using Siren (originally appeared in Mark Guzdial and Kim Rose, eds. Squeak: Open Personal Computing and Multimedia. Prentice-Hall, 2001) - 176

E. Modeling Musical Structures as EventGenerators (originally appeared in Proceedings of the 1989 International Computer Music Conference) - 214

F. A Tool for Manipulating Expressive and Structural Hierarchies in Music (originally appeared in Proceedings of the 1991 International Computer Music Conference) - 219

G. Recent Developments in Siren: Modeling, Control, and Interaction for Large-scale Distributed Music Software (with Chandrasekhar Ramakrishnan) (originally appeared in Proceedings of the 2003 International Computer Music Conference) - 226

H. Summary - 232

5. Frameworks and Languages for Sound Synthesis and Processing - 237

A. Machine Tongues XV: Three Packages for Software Sound Synthesis (originally appeared in Computer Music Journal 17:2, 1993) - 241

B. The CREATE Signal Library (“Sizzle”): Design, Issues, and Applications (with Chandrasekhar Ramakrishnan) (originally appeared in Proceedings of the 2003 International Computer Music Conference) - 292

C. Metamodels and Design Patterns in CSL4 (with Xavier Amatriain, Lance Putnam, Jorge Castellanos, and Ryan Avery) (submitted to Proceedings of the 2006 International Computer Music Conference) - 301

D. Summary - 310

6. Signal Analysis, Feature Extraction, and Music Information Retrieval -    313

A. Content Analysis and Queries in a Sound and Music Database (with Pierre Roy and Nicola Orio) (originally appeared in Proceedings of the 1999 International Computer Music Conference) - 316

B. Feature Extraction and Database Design for Music Software (with Frode Holm and Alexandre Kouznetsov) (originally appeared in Proceedings of the 2004 International Computer Music Conference) - 324

C. The FASTLab Music Analysis Kernel (originally released as FASTLab, Inc. Technical Note, 2004) - 333

D. Expert Mastering Assistant (EMA) Technical Documentation (with Alexandre Kouznetsov) (originally released as FASTLab, Inc. Technical Note, 2004) - 342

E. Summary - 354

7. Evaluation - 361

8. Future Work - 369

9. Conclusions - 371

10. Acknowledgments - 373

11. References - 374

Appendices - 377

I. Siren 7.2 Workbook (CREATE Software Documentation, 2003) - 377

II. FASTLab Music Analysis Kernel V3.0 User’s Guide (FASTLab, Inc. Technical Note, 2004) - 410

Addenda (May, 2007) - 419

I. The Siren 7.5 Music and Sound Package in Smalltalk (CREATE Technical Report, 2006) - 419

II. Scripting and Tools for Analysis /Resynthesis of Audio (originally appeared in Proceedings of the 2007 International Computer Music Conference) - 426

III. FASTLab Music Analysis Kernel V3.0 User’s Guide (FASTLab, Inc. Technical Note, 2007) - 434



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